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Journal Articles

There have been hundreds of academic publications on the Ecological Footprint over the last thirty years. This page provides a partial list of academic articles, reports, and working papers on the Ecological Footprint. Please contact us to add references and articles to this page.

Recent Staff-Authored Peer-Reviewed Academic Papers


Wackernagel, Mathis, 2024, “Ecological Footprint ” in Christine Overdevest, editor, 2024, Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Sociology, Elgar, forthcoming.


Amprazis A, Galanis N, Malandrakis G, Panaras G, Papadopoulou P, Galli A. The Ecological Footprint of Greek Citizens: Main Drivers of Consumption and Influencing Factors. Sustainability. 2023; 15(2):1377. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15021377

Raven, Peter, Zhiyun Ouyang, Paul Smith and Mathis Wackernagel, 2023. “The Shenzhen Congress and Plant Conservation: What Have We Accomplished in the Six Years Since?” J. Syst. Evol. 2 November 2023, http://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13030

Caro, D.; Sporchia, F.; Antonelli, M.; Galli, A. Beyond the IPCC for Food: An Overarching Framework for Food Systems Sustainability Assessment. Sustainability 2023, 15, 14107.

João-Pedro Ferreira, J.P., João Lourenço Marques, Sara Moreno Pires, Katsunori Iha, Alessandro Galli, Supporting national-level policies for sustainable consumption in Portugal: A socio-economic Ecological Footprint analysis, Ecological Economics, Volume 205, 2023.

Galli, A., Antonelli, M., Wambersie, L. et al., 2023. EU-27 ecological footprint was primarily driven by food consumption and exceeded regional biocapacity from 2004 to 2014. Nature Food, 4, 810–822.

Cristina Casals Miralles, Debora Barioni, Maria Serena Mancini, Joan Colón Jordà, Mercè Boy Roura, Sergio Ponsá Salas, Laia Llenas Argelaguet, Alessandro Galli, 2023: The Footprint of tourism: a review of Water, Carbon, and Ecological Footprint applications to the tourism sector, Journal of Cleaner Production, 422.

Murthy A, Galli A, Madeira C, Moreno Pires S. Consumer Attitudes towards Fish and Seafood in Portugal: Opportunities for Footprint ReductionSustainability. 2023; 15(2):1363.

Rees, W., Wackernagel, M., 2023. Ecological Footprint Accounting: Thirty Years and Still Gathering Steam, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 65:5, 5-18.

Sporchia, F., Galli, A., Kastner, T., Pulselli, F. M., Caro, D., 2023. The environmental footprints of the feeds used by the EU chicken meat industry, Science of The Total Environment, 886.


Galli, A., Barioni, D., Mancini, S. 2022. Ecological Footprint and Tourism, In Buhalis, D., (ed), 2022, Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing (pp. 10-13). Edward Elgar Publishing, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781800377486

Moreno Pires S, Mapar M, Nicolau M, Patrizi N, Malandrakis G, Pulselli FM, Bacelar Nicolau P, Caeiro S, Niccolucci V, Theodossiou NP, Mancini MS and Galli A 2022. Teaching sustainability within the context of everyday life: Steps toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals through the EUSTEPs Module. Front. Educ. 7:639793. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.639793

Wackernagel, Mathis, 2022. Is the Global Economy Running a Pyramid Scheme?, Pages 191-204 in Peter A. Wilderer, Martin Grambow, Michael Molls, Konrad Oexle  (editors) 2022, Strategies for Sustainability of the Earth System, ISBN: 978-3-030-74457-1 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74458-8 ; https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-74458-8_11

Mancini, M.S., Barioni, D., Danelutti, C., Barnias, A., Bračano, V., Capanna Piscè, G., Chappaz, G., Đuković, B., Guarneri, D., Lang, M., Martín, I., Matamoros Reverté, S., Morell, I., Peçulaj, A., Prvan, M., Randone, M., Sampson, J., Santarossa, L., Santini, F., Selmani, J., Ser, C., Sinibaldi, I., Topi, M., Treglia, V., Zirletta, S., Galli, A., Ecological Footprint and tourism: Development and sustainability monitoring of ecotourism packages in Mediterranean Protected Areas, Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 2022, 100513, ISSN 2213-0780, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2022.100513.

Laurent, É., Galli, A., Battaglia, F., Dalla Libera Marchiori, G., Fioramonti, L., Toward health-environment policy: Beyond the Rome Declaration, Global Environmental Change, Volume 72, 2022, 102418, ISSN 0959-3780, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102418.

Robinson, Abigail , Viola Csordas, and Mathis Wackernagel, 2022.“Defining limits: Ecological overshoot as a driver of conflict” in Brown, O. and Nicolucci-Altman, G. A White Paper on the Future of Environmental Peacebuilding, Geneva Peacebuilding Platform, International Union for Conservation of Nature, PeaceNexus Foundation, Environmental Law Institute, Environmental Peacebuilding Association www.ecosystemforpeace.org


Laurent, E., Battaglia, F., Janoo, A., Galli, A., Dalla Libera Marchiori, G., Munteanu, R., Sommer, C., 2021. Five pathways towards health-environment policy in a wellbeing economy. WeALL Policy Paper. https://wellbeingeconomy.org/five-pathways-towards-health-environment-policy-in-a-wellbeing-economy.

Taylor, N.G., Grillas, P., Al Hreisha, H. et al. The future for Mediterranean wetlands: 50 key issues and 50 important conservation research questions. Reg Environ Change 21, 33 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-020-01743-1

Altiok, S., Murthy, A., Iha, K., Galli, Alessandro., 2021. Reducing Mediterranean Seafood Footprints: The role of consumer attitudes. Ocean & Coastal Management. Volume 214, 15 November 2021, 105915 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2021.105915

Wackernagel, M., Hanscom, L., Jayasinghe, P., Lin, D., Murthy, A., Neill, E., Raven, P., 2021. The importance of resource security for poverty eradication. Nature Sustainability. Volume 4, pages731–738. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-021-00708-4. Plus supplementary information.

Horsburgh, Nicola, Andrew Tyler, Scot Mathieson, Mathis Wackernagel, David, Lin, 2022, Biocapacity and cost-effectiveness benefits of increased peatland restoration in Scotland, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 306, 15 March 2022, 114486, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.114486

Tsuchiya, K., Iha, K., Murthy, A., Lin, D., Altiok, S., Rupprecht, C.D.D., Hisako, K., McGreevy, S.R., Decentralization & local food: Japan’s regional Ecological Footprints indicate localized sustainability strategies, 2021. Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 292. 10 April 2021, 126043, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126043

Bradshaw CJA, Ehrlich PR, Beattie A, Ceballos G, Crist E, Diamond J, Dirzo R, Ehrlich AH, Harte J, Harte ME, Pyke G, Raven PH, Ripple WJ, Saltré F, Turnbull C, Wackernagel M and Blumstein DT, 2021. Underestimating the Challenges of Avoiding a Ghastly FutureFront. Conserv. Sci. 1:615419.

Fatemi M, Rezaei-Moghaddam K, Karami E, Hayati D, Wackernagel M (2021) An integrated approach of Ecological Footprint (EF) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) in human ecology: A base for planning toward sustainability. PLoS ONE 16(4): e0250167. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250167

Bonnie McBain, Manfred Lenzen, Glenn Albrecht, and Mathis Wackernagel, 2021, Chapter 5: Future Transitions to a Renewable Stationary Energy Sector: Implications of the Future Ecological Footprint and Land Use, in Arnab Banerjee, Ram Swaroop Meena, Manoj­Kumar Jhariya, Dhiraj Kumar Yadav (Editors), Agroecological Footprints Management, Springer, ISBN 978-981-15-9495-3, ISBN 978-981-15-9496-0 (eBook), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9496-0 Pages 155-178


Galli, A., Mailhes, L., 2020. L’impronta ecologica della nostra dieta. Equilibri, Rivista per lo sviluppo sostenibile,  1, 58-68. doi: 10.1406/97536 [In Italian]

Raven, P., Wackernagel, M., 2020. Maintaining biodiversity will define our long-term success. Plant Diversity, Volume 42, Issue 4, August 2020, Pages 211-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pld.2020.06.002

Galli, A., Pires, S. M., Iha, K., Alves, A. A., Lin, D., Mancini, M. S., Teles, F., 2020. Sustainable food transition in Portugal: Assessing the Footprint of dietary choices and gaps in national and local food policies. Science of the Total Environment, 749.

Wackernagel, Mathis, 2020, If Greta read GAIA. GAIA 29/2

Collins, A., Galli, A., Hipwood, T., Murthy, A., 2020. Living within a One Planet reality: the contribution of personal Footprint calculators. Environmental Research Letters, 15. Science of the Total Environment, 749, 14107.

Galli, A., Iha, K., Pires, S. M., Mancini, M. S., Alves, A., Zokai, G., Lin, D., Murthy, A., Wackernagel, M., 2020. Assessing the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity of Portuguese cities: Critical results for environmental awareness and local management. Cities, 96, 102442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2019.102442


Vanham, D., Leip, A., Galli, A., et al., 2019. Environmental footprint family to address local to planetary sustainability and deliver on the SDGs. Science of the Total Environment, 693, 133642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133642

Wackernagel, M., Lin, D., Evans, M., Hanscom, L., Raven, P., 2019. Defying the Footprint Oracle: Implications of Country Resource Trends. Sustainability, Volume 11 Issue 7, 2164, https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072164

Wackernagel, M., Terra Incognita: In Search of the Disconnect, in Partha Dasgupta, Peter Raven, Anna McIvor (ed) (2019) Biological Extinction: New Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, UK. Based on Workshop on Biological Extinction, February 28 – March 1, 2017, Jointly Sponsored by The Pontifical Academy of Sciences and The Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/biological-extinction/ED9DDEEEF070722801383DBED553F395

Wackernagel, Mathis, David Lin, Laurel Hanscom, Alessandro Galli, Katsunori Iha, 2019. Ecological Footprint, Fath, B.D. et al (ed) Encyclopaedia of Ecology (Second Edition), Elsevier. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Volume 4, 2019, Pages 270-282, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09567-1


Collins, A., Galli, A., Patrizi, N., Pulselli, F.M., 2018. Learning and teaching sustainability: The contribution of Ecological Footprint calculators. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 1000-1010.

Galli, A., Đurović, G., Hanscom, L., Knežević, J., 2018. Think globally, act locally: Implementing the sustainable development goals in Montenegro. Environmental Science and Policy, 84, 159-169.

Lin, D., Hanscom, L., Murthy, A., Galli, A., Evans, M., Neill, E., Mancini, M. S., Martindill, J., Medouar, F., Huang, S., Wackernagel, M., 2018. Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018, Resources, 7(3), 58. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources7030058

Małgorzata Świąder, Szewrański, S., Kazak, J. K., Van Hoof, J., Lin, D., Wackernagel, M., Alves, A., 2018. Application of Ecological Footprint Accounting as a Part of an Integrated Assessment of Environmental Carrying Capacity: A Case Study of the Footprint of Food of a Large City, Resources, 7(3), 52.

Mancini, M. S., Evans, M., Iha, K., Danelutti, C., Galli, A., 2018. Assessing the Ecological Footprint of Ecotourism Packages: A Methodological Proposition. Resources, 7(2), 38.

Mancini, M. S., Galli, A., Coscieme, L., Niccolucci, V., Lin, D., Pulselli, M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N., 2018. Exploring ecosystem services assessment through Ecological Footprint accounting. Ecosystem Services, 30, 228-235.

Wackernagel, M., A. Galli, L. Hanscom, D. Lin, L. Mailhes, T. Drummond (2018), CHAPTER 16: Ecological Footprint Accounts: Principles, p244-264, in Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators, Simon Bell and Stephen Morse (Editors). Routledge International Handbooks.

Wackernagel, M., A. Galli, L. Hanscom, D. Lin, L. Mailhes, T. Drummond (2018), CHAPTER 33: Ecological Footprint Accounts: Criticisms and Applications, p521-539 in Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators, Simon Bell and Stephen Morse (Editors). Routledge International Handbooks.

Fatemi, K. Rezaei-Moghaddam, M. Wackernagel, C. Shennan 2018, “Sustainability of environmental management in Iran: An ecological footprint analysis” Iran Agricultural Research (2018) 37(2) 53-68


Baabou, W., Grunewald, N., Ouellet-Plamondona, C., Gressot, M., Galli, A., 2017. The Ecological Footprint of Mediterranean cities: Awareness creation and policy implications. Environmental Science & Policy, 69, 94-104.

Galli, A., Iha, K., Halle, M., El Bilali, H., Grunewald, N., Eaton, D., Capone, R., Debs, P., Bottalico, F. 2017. Mediterranean countries’ food consumption and sourcing patterns: An Ecological Footprint viewpoint. Science of the Total Environment, 578, 383–391.

Isman, M., Archambault M., Konga, C., Lin, D., Iha, K., Ouellet-Plamondon, C., 2017. Ecological Footprint assessment for targeting climate change mitigation in cities: A case study of 15 Canadian cities according to census metropolitan areas. Journal of Cleaner Production, in press.

Mancini, M.S., Galli, A., Niccolucci, V., Lin, D., Hanscom, L., Wackernagel, M., Bastianoni, M.,  Marchettini, N., 2017. Stocks and flows of natural capital: Implications for Ecological Footprint, Ecological Indicators, 77, 123-128.

Wackernagel, M., Hanscom, L., Lin, D., 2017. Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability. Frontiers in Energy Research. Volume 5:18., https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2017.00018

Have you written an article about the Ecological Footprint? Please let us know so we can share your work with our network and add it to this page.


Blasi, E., Passeri, N., Franco, S., Galli, A., 2016. An ecological footprint approach to environmental—economic evaluation of farm results. Agricultural Systems, 145, 76–82.

Galli, A., Giampietro, M., Goldfinger, S., Lazarus, E., Lin, D., Saltelli, A., Wackernagel, M., Müller, F., 2016. Questioning the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Indicators 69, 224–232.

Kitzes, J., Berlow, E., Conlisk, E., Erb, K., Iha, K., Martinez, N., Newman, E. A., Plutzar, C., Smith, A. B. and Harte, J., 2016. Consumption-Based Conservation Targeting: Linking Biodiversity Loss to Upstream Demand through a Global Wildlife Footprint. Conservation Letters, 1-8. doi:10.1111/con4.12321.

Mancini, M. S., Galli, A., Niccolucci, V., Lin, D., Bastianoni, S., Wackernagel, M., Marchettini, N., 2016. Ecological Footprint: Refining the carbon Footprint calculation. Ecological Indicators, 61, 390-403.

Niestroy, I., 2016. How are we getting ready? The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in the EU and its Member States: analysis and action so far. German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik.

Pulselli, F.M., Moreno Pires, S., Galli, A., 2016.  The Need for an Integrated Assessment Framework to Account for Humanity’s Pressure on the Earth System. In The Safe Operating Space Treaty: A New Approach to Managing Our Use of the Earth System. Magalhães, P., Steffen, W., Bosselmann, K., Aragão, A., Soromenho-Marques, V. (eds), pp. 213-245. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Cambridge, UK. ISBN-13: 978-1-4438-8903-2.


Amekudzi, A., Khayesi, M., Khisty, C. J., 2015. Sustainable development footprint: a framework for assessing sustainable development risks and opportunities in time and space. J. of Sustainable Development, 18, 9-40.

Galli, A., 2015. Footprints. Oxford Bibliographies, DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199363445-0046.

Galli, A., 2015. On the Rationale and Policy Usefulness of Ecological Footprint Accounting: the case of Morocco. Environmental Science & Policy, 48, 210 – 224.

Galli, A., Halle, M., Grunewald, N., 2015. Physical limits to resource access and utilisation and their economic implications in Mediterranean economies. Environmental Science and Policy, 51, 125-136.

Galli A., Lacirignola, C., 2015. Footprint Approach of Food Consumption and Production Patterns in the Mediterranean Region. In Arab Environment: Sustainable Consumption. Annual Report of the Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED). Abdel Gelil, I., Saab, N., (Eds), pp. 162-171. Beirut, Lebanon.

González-Vallejo, P., Marrero, M., Solís-Guzmán, J., 2015. The ecological footprint of dwelling construction in Spain, Ecological Indicators, 52, 75-84.

Hu, J., Zhen, L., Sun, C.-Z., Du, B.-Z., Wang, C., 2015. Ecological Footprint of Biological Resource Consumption in a Typical Area of the Green for Grain Project in Northwestern China. Environments, 2, 44-60.

Iha, K., Poblete, P., Panda, D., Winkler, S., 2015. A Footprint Analysis of ASEAN: Ensuring Sustainable Development in an Increasingly Resource Constrained World. Asian Biotechnology and Development Review, 17, 57-67.

KELEŞ, Özgül, 2015. Creative Drama in the Teaching of Education for Sustainable Development: Sample Activity about Sustainability and Sustainable Production. Journal of Environmental Sustainability: Vol. 4: Iss. 4 , Article 4.

Lazarus, E., Lin, D., Martindill, J., Hardiman, J., Pitney, L., Galli, A., 2015. Biodiversity Loss and the Ecological Footprint of Trade. Diversity, 7, 170-191.

Lin, D., Galli, A., Borucke, M., Lazarus, E., Grunewald, N., Martindill, J., Zimmerman, D., Mancini, S., Iha, K., Wackernagel, M., 2015. Tracking Supply and Demand of Biocapacity through Ecological Footprint Accounting. In: Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies. Dewulf, J., De Meester, S., Alvarenga, R. (eds), pp. 179–200. ISBN: 978-1-118-93394-7.

Lin, D., Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., Kelly, R., 2015: Ecological Footprint: Informative and evolving—A response to van den Bergh and Grazi (2014). Ecological Indicators.

Sumaila, U. R., Hotte, N., Galli, A., Lam, V., Cisneros-Montemayor, A., Wackernagel, M., 2015: Eco2: a simple index of economic-ecological deficits. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 530, 271-279.


Al-mulali, U., Weng-Wai, C., Sheau-Ting, L., Mohammed, A., 2014. Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator of environmental degradation. Ecological Indicators, 48, 315-323.

Chambers, N., Simmons, C., Wackernagel, M., 2001. Sharing nature’s interest: ecological footprints as an indicator of sustainability. Routledge.

Clarvis, M. H., Halle, M., Mulder, I., Yarime, M., 2014. Towards a new framework to account for environmental risk in sovereign credit risk analysis. Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 4(2), 147-160.

de Leo, F., Miglietta, P.P., Pavlinović, S., 2014. Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries. Sustainability, 6, 7482-7495.

Fu, W., Turner, J., Zhao, J., Du, G., 2014. Ecological footprint (EF): An expanded role in calculating resource productivity (RP) using China and the G20 member countries as examples. Ecological Indicators, 48, 464-471.

Galli, A., Halle, M., 2014. Mounting Debt in a World in Overshoot: An Analysis of the Link between the Mediterranean Region’s Economic and Ecological Crises. Resources, 3(2), 383-394; doi:10.3390/resources3020383

Galli, A., Wackernagel, M., Iha, K., Lazarus, E., 2014. Ecological Footprint: implications for biodiversity. Biological Conservation, 173, 121-132.

Geng, Y., Zhang, L., Chen, X., Xue, B., Fujita, T., Dong, H., 2014. Urban ecological footprint analysis: a comparative study between Shenyang in China and Kawasaki in Japan. 75, 130-142.

Goldfinger, S., Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., Lazarus, E., Lin, D., 2014. Footprint facts and fallacies: A response to Giampietro and Saltelli (2014) “Footprints to Nowhere.” Ecological Indicators, 46, 622–632

Lambrechts, W., Van Liedekerke, L., 2014. Using ecological footprint analysis in higher education: Campus operations, policy development and educational purposes. Ecological Indicators, 45, 402-406.

Liu, M., Zhang, D., Min, Q., Xie, G., Su, N., 2014. The calculation of productivity factor for ecological footprints in China: A methodological note. Ecological Indicators, 38, 124-129.

Tittensor, D. P., Walpole, M., Hill, S., Boyce, D., Britten, G., Burgess, N., Butchart, S., Leadley, P., Regan, E., Alkemade, R., Baumung, R., Bellard, C., Bouwman, L., Bowles-Newark, N., Chenery, A., Cheung, W., Christensen, V., Cooper, H. D., Crowther, A., Dixon, M., Galli, A., Gaveau, V., Gregory, R., Gutierrez, N., Hirsch, T., Höft, R., Januchowski-Hartley, S., Karmann, M., Krug, C., Leverington, F., Loh, J., Kutsch Lojenga, R., Malsch, K., Marques, A., Morgan, D., Mumby, P., Newbold, T., Noonan-Mooney, K., Pagad, S., Parks, B., Pereira, H., Robertson, T., Rondinini, C., Santini, L., Scharlemann, J., Schindler, S., Rashid Sumaila, U., Teh, L., van Kolck, J., Visconti, P., and Ye, Y., 2014. A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets, Science, 346 (6206), 241-244.
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Wackernagel, M., 2014. Comment on “Ecological Footprint Policy? Land Use as an Environmental Indicator”. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 18, 20-23. doi: 10.1111/jiec.12094

Wackernagel, M., Cranston, G., Morales, J.C., Galli, A., 2014. Ecological Footprint Accounts. In: Handbook of Sustainable Development: second revised edition. Atkinson, G., Dietz, S., Neumayer, E., Agarwala, M. (eds). Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, Glos, UK.

Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., Borucke, M., Lazarus, E., Mattoon, S., 2013. Ecological footprint accounting. In: Globalisation, Economic Transition and the Environment: Forging a Path to Sustainable Development. Lawn P. (eds), pp. 276–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781781951415.00022

Weinzettel, J., Steen-Olsen, K., Hertwich, E.G., Borucke, M., Galli, A., 2014. Ecological footprint of nations: Comparison of process analysis, and standard and hybrid multiregional input–output analysis. Ecological Economics, 101, 115-126.

Xie G, Chen W, Cao S, Lu C, Xiao Y, Zhang C, Li N, Wang S., 2014. The Outward Extension of an Ecological Footprint in City Expansion: The Case of Beijing. Sustainability, 6, 9371-9386.

Yung-Jaan, L., and Li-Pei, P., 2014: Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994-2011). Sustainability, 6, 6170-6187.


Bastianoni, S., Niccolucci, V., Neri, E., Cranston, G., Galli, A., Wackernagel, M., 2013. Sustainable Development: Ecological Footprint in Accounting. Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, pp. 2467-2481. DOI: 10.1081/E-EEM-120047347 Copyright © 2013 by Taylor & Francis.

Borucke M, Moore D, Cranston G, Gracey K, Iha K, Larson J, Lazarus E, Morales JC, Wackernagel M, Galli A. 2013. Accounting for demand and supply of the Biosphere’s regenerative capacity: the National Footprint Accounts’ underlying methodology and framework. Ecological Indicators, 24, 518-533.

Galli, A., Halle, M., Mattoon, S., and M. Wackernagel, 2013. Physical and financial limits to resource access and utilization: the case of the Mediterranean economies. In World Resource Forum, Davos, Switzerland, 6-9.

Galli, A., Weinzettel, J., Cranston, G., Ercin, E. 2013. A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe’s transition to a One Planet Economy. Science of the Total Environment. 461-462, 813-818.

Passeri, N., Borucke, M., Blasi, M., Franco, S., and E. Lazarus, 2013. The influence of farming technique on cropland: A new approach for the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Indicators, 29, 1-5.

Rees, W., and M. Wackernagel, 2013. The shoe fits, but the footprint is larger than Earth. PLoS Biol. 11(11): e1001701. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001701

Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., Borucke, M., Lazarus, E., Mattoon, S., 2013. Ecological footprint accounting. In: Globalisation, Economic Transition and the Environment: Forging a Path to Sustainable Development. Lawn P. (eds), pp. 276–304. 

Weinzettel, J., Hertwich, E.G., Peters, G.P., Steen-Olsen, S., Galli, A., 2013. Affluence drives the global displacement of land use. Global Environmental Change, 23, 433–438.


Bastianoni, S., Niccolucci, V., Pulselli, R.M., Marchettini, N., 2012. Indicator and indicandum: “Sustainable way” vs “prevailing conditions” in the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Indicators, 16, 47-50.

Ewing, B., Hawkins, T., Wiedmann, T., Galli, A., Ercin, E., Weinzettel, J., Steen-Olsen, K., 2012. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework. Ecological Indicators, 23, 1-8.

Galli, A., Kitzes, J., Niccolucci, V., Wackernagel, M., Wada, Y., Marchettini, N., 2012. Assessing the global environmental consequences of economic growth through the Ecological Footprint: A focus on China and India. Ecological Indicators, 17, 99-107.

Galli, A., Wiedmann, T., Ercin, E., Knoblauch, D., Ewing, B., Giljum, S. 2012. Integrating Ecological, Carbon, and Water Footprint into a “Footprint Family” of indicators: definition and role in tracking Human Pressure on the Planet. Ecological Indicators, 16, 100-112.

Moore, D., Cranston, G., Reed, A., Galli, A., 2012. Projecting future human demand on the Earth’s regenerative capacity. Ecological Indicators, 16, 3-10.

Niccolucci, V., Tiezzi, E., Pulselli, F.M., Capineri, C., 2012. Biocapacity vs Ecological Footprint of world regions: A geopolitical interpretation. Ecological Indicators, 16, 23-30.

Sutton, P.C., Anderson, S., Tuttle, B.T., Morse, L., 2012. The real wealth of nations: Mapping and monetizing the human ecological footprint. Ecological Indicators, 16, 11-22.


Keleş, O., 2011. The Effect of Learning Cycle Model on Students’ Reducing Ecological Footprints. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 10(3), p. 1143-1160.

Niccolucci, V., Galli, A., Reed, A., Neri, E., Wackernagel, M., Bastianoni, S., 2011. Towards a 3D National Ecological Footprint Geography. Ecological Modelling, 222, 2939-2944.


Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond, R.E.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.E., Carr, G.M., Chanson, J., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R.D., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Hernández Morcillo, M., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quader, S., Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J-C., Watson, R., 2010. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Science, 328, 1164-1168. DOI: 10.1126/science.1187512.

Keleş, O., 2010. The Indicator of the Sustainable Life: the Ecological Footprint. Tabiat ve Insan, 44, p. 3-10.

Keleş, O., Aydoğdu, M., 2010. Application and Evaluation of Ecological Footprint as an Environmental Education Tool. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(1), p. 65-80.

Keleş, O., Özsoy, S., 2010. Türkiye’ye Özgü: Ekolojik Ayak İzi Hesaplama Aracı. Bilim ve Teknik, p. 88-91.

Wiedmann, T., Barrett, J., 2010. A Review of the Ecological Footprint Indicator—Perceptions and Methods. Sustainability, 2(6), 1645-1693.

Yürümezoğlu, K., Çökelez, A., 2010. Preservice Science Teachers’ Views of Ways of Reducing Ecological Fooptrints. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 7(3), 188-197.


Kitzes J, Galli A, Bagliani M, Barrett J, Dige G, Ede S, Erb K, Giljum S, Haberl H, Hails C, Jungwirth S, Lenzen M, Lewis K, Loh J, Marchettini N, Messinger H, Milne K, Moles R, Monfreda C, Moran D, Nakano K, Pyhälä A, Rees W, Simmons C, Wackernagel M, Wada Y, Walsh C, Wiedmann T., 2009. A Research Agenda for Improving National Ecological Footprint Accounts. Ecological Economics, 68(7), 1991-2007.

Kitzes, J., Moran, D., Galli, A., Wada, Y., Wackernagel, M., 2009. Interpretation and Application of the Ecological Footprint: A Reply to Fiala (2008). Ecological Economics, 68(4), 929-930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.11.001

Niccolucci, V., Bastianoni, S., Tiezzi, E.B.P., Wackernagel, M., Marchettini, N., 2009. How deep is the footprint? A 3D representation. Ecological Modelling, 220(20), 2819–2823.


Bagliani M., Galli A., Niccolucci V., Marchettini N., 2008. The ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy). Journal of Environmental Management, 86(2), 354-364.

Keleş, O., Özsoy, S., Uzun, N., Öğretmen Adaylarının Ekolojik Ayak İzlerinin Hesaplanması ve Değerlendirilmesi. Ege  Eğitim Dergisi, 9(2), p. 1-14.

Kitzes, J., Wackernagel, M., Loh, J., Peller, A., Goldfinger, S., Cheng, D., Tea, K., 2008. Shrink and Share: Humanity’s Present and Future Ecological Footprint. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 467-475.

Lammers, A., Moles, R., Walsh, C., Huijbregts, M.A.J., 2008. Ireland’s footprint: A time series for 1983-2001. Land Use Policy, 25(1), 53-58.

Niccolucci, V, Galli, A., Kitzes, J., Pulselli, R.M., Borsa, S., Marchettini, N., 2008. Ecological Footprint Analysis applied to the production of two Italian wines. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 128, 162-166.

Patterson, T.M., Niccolucci, V., Marchettini, N., 2008. Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint. Journal of Environmental Management, 86(2), 407-418.

Pulselli, F.M., Ciampalini, F., Leipert, C., Tiezzi, E. 2008. Integrating methods for the environmental sustainability: The SPIn-Eco Project in the Province of Siena (Italy). Journal of Environmental Management, 86(2), 332-341.

Venetoulis, J., Talberth, J., 2008. Refining the ecological footprint. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10, 441-469.


Bastianoni, S., Galli, A., Pulselli, R.M., Niccolucci, N. 2007. Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Natural Capital Appropriation through Building Construction: Practical Case Study in the Italian Context. Ambio 36(7), 559-565.

Dietz, T., Rosa, E.A., York, R. 2007. Driving the human ecological footprint. Front Ecol Environ, 5, 13-18.

Galli, A., Kitzes, J., Wermer, P., Wackernagel, M., Niccolucci, V., Tiezzi, E., 2007. An Exploration of The Mathematics Behind The Ecological Footprint. International Journal of Ecodynamics, 2(4), 250-257.

Hunter, C., Shaw, J., 2007. The ecological footprint as a key indicator of sustainable tourism. Tourism Management, 28, 46–57.

Kitzes, J., Galli, A., Wackernagel, M., Goldfinger, S., Bastianoni, S. 2007a. A “Constant Global Hectare” Method for Representing Ecological Footprint Time Trends. Paper presented at the International Ecological Footprint Conference – Stepping up the Pace: New Developments in Ecological Footprint Methodology, Policy & Practice, 8-10 May, Cardiff, 2007.

Kitzes, J., Peller, A., Goldfinger, S. & Wackernagel, M., 2007b. Current Methods for Calculating National Ecological Footprint Accounts. Science for Environment & Sustainable Society, 4(1), 1-9.

Lenzen, M., Borgström Hansson, C., Bond, S., 2007. On the bioproductivity and land-disturbance metrics of the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Economics, 61, 6-10.

Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility – theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61(1), 27-42.

Niccolucci, V., Pulselli, F.M., Tiezzi, E., 2007. Strengthening the threshold hypothesis: Economic and biophysical limits to growth. Ecological Economics, 60, 667-672.

Nguyen, H.X., and Yamamoto, R., 2007. Modification of ecological footprint evaluation method to include non-renewable resource consumption using thermodynamic approach. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 51(4), 870-884.

Patterson, T.M., Niccolucci, V., Bastianoni, S., 2007. Beyond “more is better”: Ecological footprint accounting for tourism and consumption in Val di Merse, Italy. Ecological Economics, 62(3-4), 747-756.

Turner, K., Lenzen, M., Wiedmann, T., Barrett, J., 2007. Examining the global environmental impact of regional consumption activites – Part 1: A technical note on combining input-output and ecological footprint analysis. Ecological Economics, 62(1), 37-44.

Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., 2007. An overview on ecological footprint and sustainable development: a chat with Mathis Wackernagel. International Journal of Ecodynamics, 2 (1), 1-9.

White, T.J., 2007. Sharing resources: The global distribution of the Ecological Footprint. Ecological Economics, 64(2), 402-410.

Wiedmann, T., Lenzen, M., 2007. On the Conversion between local and global hectares in Ecological Footprint analysis. Ecological Economics, 60, 673-677.

Wiedmann, T., Lenzen, M., Turner, K., Barrett, J., 2007. Examining the global environmental impact of regional consumption activites – Part 2: Review of input-output models for the assessment of environmental impacts embodied in trade. Ecological Economics, 61(1), 15-26.

Wilson, J., Tyedmers, P., Pelot, R., 2007. Contrasting and comparing sustainable development indicator metrics. Ecological Indicators, 7, 299-314.


Bastianoni, S., Galli, A., Niccolucci, V. and Pulselli, R.M. 2006. The ecological footprint of building construction. In: The Sustainable City IV: Urban regeneration and sustainability. Mander, U., Brebbia, C.A. and Tiezzi, E. (eds.). WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp. 345-356.

Chen, B., Chen, G.Q., 2006a. Ecological footprint accounting based on emergy – A case study of the Chinese society. Ecological Modelling, 198, 101-114.

Chen, B., Chen, G.Q., 2006b. Modified ecological footprint accounting and analysis based on embodied exergy — a case study of the Chinese society 1981–2001. Ecological Economics, 61, 355-376.

Cuandra, M., Björklund J., 2006. Assessment of economic and ecological carrying capacity of agricultural crops in Nicaragua. Ecological Indicators, 7(1), 133-149.

Jorgenson, A.K, Burns, T.J., 2006. The political-economic causes of change in the ecological footprints of nations, 1991–2001: A quantitative investigation. Social Science Research, in Press, doi: 10.1016/J.ssresearch.2006.06.003.

McDonald, G.W., Forgie, V.E., MacGregor, C., 2006. Treading lightly: Ecofootprints of New Zealand’s ageing population. Ecological Economics, 56, 424-439.

Medved, S., 2006. Present and future ecological footprint of Slovenia-The influence of energy demand scenarios. Ecological Modelling, 192, 25-36.

Onn, N., Dale-Hallett, L., Grant, T., Othman, M., 2006. A preliminary investigation of the Ecological Footprint of Melbourne Museum. Proceedings of APEN International Conference, Victoria, Australia.

Peeters, P., Schouten, F., 2006. Reducing the ecological footprint of inbound tourism and transport to Amsterdam. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14, 157–171.

Rees, W.E., 2006. Ecological Footprints and Bio-Capacity: Essential Elements in Sustainability Assessment. In: Dewulf, J., Van Langenhove, H. (eds), Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp. 143-158.

Wackernagel, M., Kitzes, J., Moran, D., Goldfinger, S. and Thomas, M., 2006. The ecological footprint of cities and regions: comparing resource availability with resource demand. Environ. Urban. 18, 103-112.

Wiedmann, T., Minx, J., Barrett, J., Wackernagel, M., 2006. Allocating ecological footprints to final consumption categories with input–output analysis. Ecological Economics, 56, 28-48.

Yue, D., Xu, X., Li, Z., Hui, C., Li, W., Yang, H., Ge, J., 2006. Spatiotemporal analysis of ecological footprint and biological capacity of Gansu, China 1991–2015: Down from the environmental cliff. Ecological Economics, 58, 393-406.


Aall, C., Norland, I.T., 2005. The use of the Ecological Footprint in local politics and administration: results and implications from Norway. Local Environment, 10, 159-172.

Barrett, J., Birch, R., Charrett, N., Wiedmann, T., 2005. Exploring the Application of the Ecological Footprint to Sustainable Consumption Policy. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 7, 303-316.

Dias de Oliveira, M.E., Vaughan, B.E., Rykiel, E.J., 2005. Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint. BioScience, 55, 593-602.

Holden, E. and Høyer, K.G. 2005. The ecological footprints of fuels. Transportation Research Part D 10, 395–403.

Nijdam, D.S., Wilting, H.C., Goedkoop, M.J., Madsen, J., 2005. Environmental Load from Dutch Private Consumption: How Much Damage Takes Place Abroad? Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9, 147-168.

Stoeglehner, G., Levy, J.K., Neugebauer, G.C., 2005. Improving the ecological footprint of nuclear energy: a risk-based lifecycle assessment approach for critical infrastructure systems. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures, 1(4), 394–403.

Van Vuuren, D.P., Bouwman, L.F., 2005. Exploring past and future changes in the ecological footprint for world regions. Ecological Economics, 52, 43-62.

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Moran, D., Wermer, P., Goldfinger, S., Deumling, D. & Murray, M., 2005. National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts 2005: the underlying calculation method. Global Footprint Network, Oakland, Available on line at: footprintnetwork.org.

Zhao, S., Li, Z., Li, W., 2005. A modified method of ecological footprint calculation and its application. Ecological Modelling, 185, 65-75.


Bagliani, M., Da Villa, E., Gattolin, M., Niccolucci, V., Patterson, T., Tiezzi, E., 2004. The ecological footprint analysis for the Province of Venice and the relevance of tourism. In Marchettini, N., Brebbia, C.A., Tiezzi E., Wadhwa, L.C.(eds.), The Sustainable City III, WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp 123-132.

Barrett, J., Birch, R., Cherrett, N., Simmons, C., 2004. An Analysis of the Policy and Educational Applications of the Ecological Footprint. Stockholm Environmental Institutes, York, UK.

Erb, K.-H., 2004a. Actual Land Demand of Austria 1926 – 2000: A Variation on Ecological Footprint Assessments. Land Use Policy, 21, 247-259.

Gassner, J., Narodoslawsky,M., 2004. Sustainable economy and their application to Austria. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development 3 (2), 120–144.

Haberl, H., Wackernagel, M., Krausmann, F., Erb, K.H. and Monfreda, C. 2004b. Ecological footprints and human appropriation of net primary production: a comparison. Land use policy 21, 279-288.

McDonald, G.W., Patterson, M.G., 2004. Ecological Footprints and interdependencies of New Zealand regions. Ecological Economics, 50, 49-67.

Monfreda, C., Wackernagel, M. and Deumling, D. 2004. Establishing national natural capital accounts based on detailed ecological footprint and biological capacity assessments. Land Use Policy, 21, 231-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2003.10.009

Nijkamp, P., Rossi, E., Vindigni, G., 2004. Ecological footprints in plural: a meta-analytic comparison of empirical results. Regional Studies, 28, 747-765.

Olgyay, V. and Herdt, J. 2004. The application of ecosystems services criteria for green building assessment. Solar Energy 77, 389-398.

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Schulz, N.B., Erb, K.H., Haberl, H., Krausmann, F., 2004. Calculating national and global ecological footprint time series: resolving conceptual challenges. Land use policy, 21, 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2003.10.006

Wackernagel, M., White, S., Moran, D., 2004. Using Ecological Footprint accounts: from analysis to applications. Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development, 3, 293-315. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESD.2004.005077

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Erb, K.-H., Haberl, H., Schulz, N.B., 2004. Ecological footprint time series of Austria, the Philippines, and South Korea for 1961-1999: comparing the conventional approach to an ‘actual land area’ approach. Land use policy, 21, 261-269.


Bagliani, M., Ferlaino, F., Procopio, S., 2003. The analysis of the environmental sustainability of the economic sectors of the Piedmont Region (Italy). In: Tiezzi E., Brebbia C.A., Uso J.L. (eds.), Ecosystems and Sustainable Development. WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp. 613-622.

Deumling, D., Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., 2003. Eating up the Earth: how sustainable food systems shrink our ecological footprint. Redefining Progress. Available on line at: http://www.r-progress.org/newpubs/2003/ag_food_0703.pdf.

Hubacek, K., Giljum, S., 2003. Applying physical input-output analysis to estimate land appropriation (ecological footprint) of international trade activities. Ecological Economics, 44, 137-151.

Lenzen, M., Lundie, S., Bransgrove, G., Charet, L., Sack, F., 2003. Assessing the Ecological Footprint of a large metropolitan water supplier: lessons for water management and planning towards sustainability. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 46, 113-141.

Rees, W.E., 2003. Economic Development and Environmental Protection: An Ecological Economics Perspective. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 86, 29-45.

Senbel, M., McDaniels, T., Dowlatabadi, H., 2003. The ecological footprint: a non-monetary metric of human consumption applied to North America; Global Environmental Change, 13, 83-100.

Sutton, P. 2003. An empirical environmental Sustainability Index derived solely from nighttime satellite imagery and ecosystem service valuation. Popul Environ, 24, 293-311.

Torras, M. 2003. An ecological footprint approach to external debt relief. World Development 31, 2161-2171.

Warren-Rhodes, K., Sadovy, Y. and Cesar, H. 2003. Marine ecosystem appropriation in the Indo-Pacific: A case study of the live reef fish food trade. Ambio, 32, 481-488.

Wood, R., Lenzen, M., 2003. An application of a modified ecological footprint method and structural path analysis in a comparative institutional study. Local Environment, 8, 365-386.

York, R., Rosa, E.A., Dietz, T. 2003. STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts. Ecological Economics, 46, 351-365.

York, R., Rosa, E.A., Dietz, T. 2003. Footprints on the Earth: The Environmental Consequences of Modernity. American Sociological Review, 68(2), 279-300.


Barrett, J., Vallack, H., Jones, A., Haq, G., 2002. A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of York. Technical Report, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Ferng, J.J., 2002. Towards a scenario analysis framework for energy footprint. Ecological Economics, 40, 53-69.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Nonhebel, S., 2002. Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food. Ecological Economics, 42, 185-199.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Nonhebel, S., Ivens, W.P.M.F., 2002. A method to determine land requirements relating to food consumption patterns. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 90, 47-58.

Gössling, S., Borgström Hansson, C., Horstmeier, O., Saggel, S., 2002. Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability. Ecological Economics, 43, 199–211.

Hunter, C., 2002. Sustainable tourism and the tourist ecological footprint. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 4, 7–20.

Sanderson, E.W., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M.A., Redford, K.H., Wannebo, A.V., Woolmer, G., 2002. The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild. BioScience, 52(10), 891-904.

Wackernagel, M., Schulz, N.B., Deumling, D., Linares, A.C., Jenkins, M., Kapos, V., Monfreda, C., Loh, J., Myers, N., Norgaard, R., Randers, J. 2002. Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 99, 9266-9271. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.142033699


Barrett, J., 2001. Component ecological footprint: developing sustainable scenarios. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 19, 107-108.

Ferng, J.J., 2001. Using composition of land multiplier to estimate ecological footprints associated with production activity. Ecological Economics, 37, 159–172.

Haberl, H., Erb, K.H., Krausmann, F. 2001. How to calculate and interpret ecological footprints for long periods of time: the case of Austria 1926-1995. Ecological Economics, 38, 25-45.

Lenzen, M., Murray, S.A., 2001c. A modified ecological footprint method and its application to Australia. Ecological Economics, 37, 229–255.

Luck, M.A., Darrel Jenerette, G., Wu, J., Grimm, N.B., 2001. The urban funnel model and the spatially heterogeneous ecological footprint. Ecosystems, 4, 782-796.

Rees, W.E., 2001. Ecological Footprint, Concept of. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Levin, S., Editor-in-Chief). Vol 2, pp 229 –244. Academic Press, San Diego.

Warren-Rhodes, K., Koenig, A., 2001 Ecosystem appropriation by Hong Kong and its implications for sustainable development. Ecological Economics, 39, 347-359.


Ayres, R.U., 2000. Commentary on the utility of the ecological footprint concept; Ecological Economics, 32, 347-349.

Deutsch, L., Jansson, Å., Troell, M., Rönnbäck, P., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., 2000. The “ecological footprint”: communicating human dependence on nature’s work. Ecological Economics, 32, 351–355.

Herendeen, R.A., 2000. Ecological footprint is a vivid indicator of indirect effects. Ecological Economics, 32, 357-358.

Moffatt, I., 2000. Ecological footprints and sustainable development. Ecological Economics, 32, 359-362.

Opschoor, H., 2000. The ecological footprint: measuring rod or metaphor? Ecological Economics, 32, 363-365.

Rapport, D.J., 2000. Ecological footprints and ecosystem health: complementary approaches to a sustainable future. Ecological Economics, 32, 367-370.

Simmons, C., Lewis, K., Barrett, J., 2000. Two feet-two approaches: a component-based model of ecological footprinting? Ecological Economics, 32, 375-380.

Simpson, R.W., Petroeschevsky, A., Lowe, I., 2000. An ecological footprint analysis for Australia, Australian Journal of Environmental Management, 7, 11-18.

Van Kooten, G.C., Bulte, E.H., 2000. The ecological footprint: useful science or politics? Ecological Economics, 32, 385-389.

van Vuuren, D.P., Smeets, E.M.W., 2000. Ecological footprints of Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 34, 115–130.

Wackernagel, M., Silverstein, J., 2000. Big things first: focusing on the scale imperative with the ecological footprint. Ecological Economics, 32(3), 391-394.

Wackernagel, M. and David Yount, 2000, “Footprints for Sustainability: Next Steps”, Environment, Development and Sustainability. Vol. 1 No.2: 21–42. 2000.


Wackernagel, M., “Book Review: How Many People Can the Earth Support? by Joel E. Cohen”, Ecological Economics (June 1999 Vol.29 No.3, p 485-488).

Borgström Hansson, Carina and M. Wackernagel, “Mapping place and accounting space: How to re-embed the human economy” Ecological Economics, May 1999 Vol.29 No.2, p 203-213.

Chambers, N., Simmons, C., Wackernagel, M., 1999. Sharing nature’s interest: ecological footprints as an indicator of sustainability. Routledge.

Ferguson, A.R.B., 1999. The Logical Foundations of Ecological Footprints. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1, 149–156.

Wackernagel, M., Lillemor Lewan and Carina Borgström Hansson, 1999. “Evaluating the Use of Natural Capital with the Ecological Footprint: Applications in Sweden and Subregions”, Ambio. Vol 28 No. 7, pp604-612.

Sturm, Andreas, M. Wackernagel and Kaspar Müller, 1999. “Wer werden die Gewinner und die Verlierer im globalen Wettbewerb sein? Die ökologische Grundlage der nationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit” GAIA Vol 8 No 2, p87-92.

Holmberg, John, Ulrika Lundqvist, Karl-Henrik Robèrt and M. Wackernagel, “The Ecological Footprint from a Systems Perspective of Sustainability”, The International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, Vol. 6 p17-33 1999.

Wackernagel, M., “Can Trade Promote an Ecologically Secure World? The Global Economy from an Ecological Footprint Perspective.” Buffalo Environmental Law Journal. Volume 5, No. 2, May 1998. p180.

Wackernagel, M. and David Yount, “The Ecological Footprint: An Indicator of Progress Toward Regional Sustainability”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 51 (1/2): 511-529, June 1998.

van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., Verbruggen, H., 1999. Spatial sustainability, trade and indicators: an evaluation of the “ecological footprint”. Ecological Economics, 29, 61-72.

Wackernagel, M., Lewan, L. and Hansson, C.B., 1999a. Evaluating the use of natural capital with the ecological footprint. Ambio 28, 604–612.

Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Bello, P., Linares, A.C., Falfán, L., García, J.M., Suárez, G.A.I., Suárez, G.M.G., 1999b. National natural capital accounting with the ecological footprint concept. Ecological Economics, 29, 375–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(98)90063-5

Wackernagel, M., “Importing Carrying Capacity: How Global Trade Enables Nations and the World to Accumulate an Ecological Debt,” Contribution to Prof. Kenneth Watt’s Encyclopedia on Human Ecology, (originally with the Academic Press), 1999.

Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, 1999, “Monetary Analysis:  Turning a Blind Eye on Sustainability”. In M. Wackernagel and Alex Long (editor), 1999, “Ecological Economics Forum: Why Sustainability Analyses Must Include Biophysical Assessments”. Ecological Economics Vol. 29 No. 1 p 47-52, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(98)00079-2

Wackernagel, M. and Alex Long (editor), 1999, “Ecological Economics Forum: Why Sustainability Analyses Must Include Biophysical Assessments”. Ecological Economics Vol. 29 No. 1 Forum: p13-60 , Introduction p 13-15, 1999.


Bicknell, K.B., Ball, R.J., Cullen, R., Bigsby, H., 1998. New methodology for the ecological footprint with an application to the New Zealand economy. Ecological Economics. 27, 149–160.

Fricker, A., 1998. The ecological footprint of New Zealand as a step towards sustainability. Futures, 30: 559-567.

Levett, R., 1998. Footprinting: a great step forward, but tread carefully. Local Environment, 3, 67-74.

Wackernagel, M. and Yount, J.D. 1998. The ecological footprint: an indicator of progress toward regional sustainability. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 51, 511–529. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1006094904277

Wackernagel, M., “Footprints: Recent Steps and Possible Traps”, Local Environment Vol.3 No.2 (July 1998). https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839808725560

Wackernagel, M., “The Ecological Footprint of Santiago de Chile”, Local Environment Vol.3 No.1 (Feb 1998),  p7-25 https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839808725541 


Folke, C., Jansson, Å., Larsson, J., Costanza, R., 1997. Ecosystem appropriation by cities. Ambio 26, 167-172.

Kautsky, N., Berg, H., Folke, C., Larsson, J., Troell M., 1997. Ecological footprint for assessment of resource use and development limitations in shrimp and tilapia aquaculture. Aquacult. Res. 28, 753-766.

Wackernagel, M., “Framing the Sustainability Crisis: Getting from Concern to Action.” Discussion Paper for the Sustainable Development Research Institute (SDRI) at The University of British Columbia. Published in SDRI Discussion Paper Series 97-1. 1997.

Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, “Our Ecological Footprint: Where on Earth is the Lower Fraser Basin”, in Healy, M.C. (editor). Sustainability Issues and Choices in the Lower Fraser Basin: Resolving the Dissonance, UBC Press. 1997.

Wackernagel, M. and William E. Rees, “Perceptual and Structural Barriers to Investing in Natural Capital.” Ecological Economics. Vol.20 No.1, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(96)00077-8


Rees, W.E., 1996. Revisiting Carrying Capacity: Area-Based Indicators of Sustainability. Population and Environment, 17, 195-215.

Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, “Urban Ecological Footprints: Why Cities Cannot be Sustainable – and Why They Are a Key to Sustainability”, Environ Impact Assess Rev. Vol.16, p223-248, September 1996.


Wackernagel, M., Yoshihiko Wada and William Rees, “Ecological Footprint Bunseki no Gainen to Sono Nihon eno Tekiyou: Eizoku Kanou na Chikyu Kankyo Kaifuku no Tameno Hihon no Sekimu. (The Concept of Ecological Footprint Analysis and Its Application to Japan: Responsibilities of Japan Toward Restoring Global Sustainability.)” in Japanese. Population and Development Journal, Japan. 1995 Summer Issue. (No.52.).


UBC Task Force on Healthy and Sustainable Communities (incl. M. Wackernagel), “Tools for Sustainability: Iteration and Implementation.” 1994. In Cordia Chu and Rod Simpson, (editors), 1994. The Ecological Public Health: From Vision to Practice. Centre for Health Promotion, University of Toronto, and Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Griffith University, Australia.

Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, “Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.” Chapter 20 in AnnMari Jansson, Carl Folke, Monica Hammer, and Robert Costanza (ed.), 1994. Investing in Natural Capital. Island Press Washington DC. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ548060

Dietz, T., Rosa, E.A., 1994. Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology. Hum Ecol R,1, 277-300.

Wackernagel, M., 1994. Ecological footprint and appropriated carrying capacity : a tool for planning toward sustainability. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia.


Rees, W.E., 1992. Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: What urban economics leaves out. Environment and Urbanization, 4, 121-130.

Books or Reports

Dewulf, Jo, De Meester, S., Alvarenga, R., 2016: Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources.

Sakmar, S.L., Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., Moore, D., 2011. Sustainable Development and Environmental Challenges in the MENA Region: Accounting for the Environment in the 21st Century. Working Paper No. 592. Economic Research Forum, 21 Al-Sad Al-Aaly Street Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Pulselli, F.M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N., Tiezzi, E., forthcoming. The Road to Sustainability. 2008. WIT Press, Southampton, UK.

DG Environment (Directorate General of the Environment, European Commission) 2007. Potential of the Ecological Footprint for monitoring environmental impact from natural resources use – Analyse the potential of the Ecological Footprint and related assessment tools for use in the EU’s Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources. Ongoing assessment.

Giljum, S., Hammer, M., Stocker, A., Lackner, M., Best, A., Blobel, D., Ingwersen, W., Naumann, S., Neubauer, A., Simmons, C., Lewis, K., Shmelev, S., 2007. Scientific assessment and evaluation of the indicator “Ecological Footprint“. Final project report. German Federal Environment Agency, Dessau.

Lenzen, M., Wiedmann, T., Foran, B., Dey, C., Widmer-Cooper, A., Williams, M., Ohlemüller, R. 2007. Forecasting the Ecological Footprint of Nations: a blueprint for a dynamic approach. ISA Research Paper 07/01.

Risk & Policy Analysts Ltd. 2007. A review of recent developments in, and the practical use of, ecological footprinting methodologies: A report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Defra, London.

Talberth, J., Venetoulis, J., Wolowicz, K., 2007. Recasting Marine Ecological Fishprint.

Schaefer, F., Luksch, U., Steinbach, N., Cabeça, J., Hanauer, J., 2006. Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity: The world’s ability to regenerate resources and absorb waste in a limited time period. Eurostat.

von Stokar, T., Steinemann, M., Rüegge, B., Schmill, J., 2006. Switzerland’s ecological footprint: A contribution to the sustainability debate. Published by Federal Office for Spatial Development (ARE), Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN), Federal Statistical Office (FSO), Neuchåtel.

Wiedmann, T., Minx, J., Barrett, J., Vanner, R., Ekins, P., 2006. Sustainable Consumption and Production – Development of an Evidence Base: Resource Flows. Final Project Report, August 2006. London, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.

CBD SBSTTA (Convention on Biological Diversity Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice) 2005. Indicators for Assessing Progress Towards the 2010 Target: Ecological Footprint and Related Concepts. Note by the Executive Secretary, SBSTTA Eleventh Meeting, Montreal, 28 November – 2 December 2005.

George, C., Dias, S., 2005. Sustainable Consumption and Production – Development of an Evidence Base, Study of Ecological Footprinting. Final Report (Revised) – June 2005, Prepared for Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Lenzen, M., Wackernagel, M., Lauck, B., Wermer, P., 2005. The Ecological Footprint of the State of Victoria. University of Sydney, Global Footprint Network and Environment Protection Authority, Victoria.

Lovink, J.S., Wackernagel, M., Goldfinger, S.H., 2004. Eco-Insurance: Risk Management for the 21st Century.

Meadows, D.H., Randers, J., Meadow, D.L., 2004. Limits to Growth – The 30-year Update. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont, USA.

Ambiente Italia, 2003. European Common Indicators: Towards a Local Sustainability Profile. Final Project Report Development, Refinement, Management and Evaluation of European Common Indicators Project.

Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C. and Deumling, D. 2002. Ecological footprint of nations, November 2002 update: How much nature do they use? How much nature do they have?

Chambers, G. (Editor), 2001. Ecological Footprinting: A Technical Report to the STOA Panel. Published by European Parliament, Directorate General for Research, Directorate A, The STOA Programme.

Lewan, L. and Simmons, C. 2001. The use of Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity Analyses as Sustainability Indicators for Sub-national Geographical Areas: a Recommended way Forward. Final Report. European Common Indicators Project EUROCITIES/Ambiente Italia.

Chambers, Nicky, Craig Simmons and M. Wackernagel, 2000. Sharing Nature’s Interest: Ecological Footprints as an Indicator for Sustainability, EarthScan, London. (Translated into Italian Manuale de la Impronta Ecologica, Edizioni Ambiente, Milan, 2002)

Sturm, Andreas, M. Wackernagel and Kaspar Müller, 2000. The Winners and Losers in Global Competition: Why Eco-Efficiency Reinforces Competitiveness: A Study of 44 Nations, Verlag: Rüegger, Chur/Zürich. ISBN 3 7253 0658 3 (adapted and improved version of the German edition)

Sturm, Andreas, M. Wackernagel and Kaspar Müller, 1999. Die Gewinner und die Verlierer im globalen Wettbewerb: Warum Öko-Effizienz die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit stärkt: 44 Nationen im Test, Verlag: Rüegger, Chur/Zürich 1999 (ISBN 3-7253-0653-2).

Onisto, L.J., Krause, E., Wackernagel, M., 1997. How big is Toronto’s ecological footprint? Using the concept of appropriated carrying capacity for measuring sustainability. Centro de estudios para la sustenibilidad and The City of Toronto.

Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Linares, A.C., Falfan, I.S.L., Garcia, J.M., Guerrero, A.I.S., Guerrero, M.G.S., 1997. Ecological Footprint of nation: how much nature do they use? How much nature do they have? International Council for Local Environment Initiatives, Toronto, Commissioned by the Earth Council for the RIO +5 forum. Original via archive.org. Downloadable and slightly restored version.

Wackernagel, M. and Rees, W.E., 1996, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island. Non-english editions: L’impronta ecologica, Milan: Edizioni Ambiente, Milan and WWF Italia, Roma, 1996, 3rd revised edition 2004; Unser ökologischer Fußabdruck, adapted and improved German version, Birkhäuser, Basel, April 1997; Notre empreinte écologique, Les Éditions Écosocieté, Montréal, ISBN 2-921561-43-3 1999). Also published in Spanish (LOM Ediciones, Santiago de Chile, 2001), Mandarin, Japanese, Latvian and Hungarian.

Wackernagel, M., 1994. Ecological footprint and appropriated carrying capacity : a tool for planning toward sustainability. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia.

Wackernagel, M., McIntosh, J., Rees, W.E., Woollard, R., 1993. How big is our ecological footprint? A handbook for estimating a community’s appropriated carrying capacity. Discussion draft of the Task Force on Planning Healthy and Sustainable Communities, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.